Geometrical (ray) optics

Concave (collecting) spherical mirror: focal distance
F = R / 2

Concave (collecting) spherical mirror
1/d + 1/f = 1/F

Concave (collecting) spherical mirror
1/d + 1/f = 2/R

Convex spherical mirror: zoom
Γ = h / h_0

Convex spherical mirror: zoom
Γ = f / d

Convex spherical mirror
1/d - 1/f = -1/F

Convex spherical mirror
1/d - 1/f = -2/R

Light-refraction law
sin(α) / sin(γ) = n

Absolute index of refraction
n = c / v

Relative index of refraction
n = n2 / n1

Relative index of refraction
n = v1 / v2

Light-refraction law: relative indexes of refraction
sin(α) / sin(γ) = n2 / n1

Light-refraction law: speeds of light
sin(α) / sin(γ) = v1 / v2

Total reflection
sin(α) = 1 / n

Displacement (shift) of light when crossing the plate
b = d * sin(α-γ) / cos(γ)

Angle of deviation (deflection) of light in a prism
δ = α1 +γ2 -φ

Angle of deviation (deflection) of light in a prism
δ = φ(n - 1)

Thin lens formula
1/F = (n1/n2-1)(1/R1+1/R2)

Lens power
D = 1 / F

Lens power
1/d + 1/f = D

Linear magnification of the lens
Γ = H / h

Γ_s = f^2 / d^2

Γ_s = Γ^2