Thermodynamics

Inner energy of monatomic gas
U = 3m R*T/(2M)

Inner energy of monatomic gas
U = 3νR*T / 2

Specific heat of gas
c = 3R / 2M

Gas expansion work
A = p * Δ_V

Work of isothermal expansion of the gas
A = mR*T/M *ln(V_2/V_1)

The first law of thermodynamics
Δ_U = A + Q

Efficiency of heat engine
η = A_n / Q_1

Efficiency of heat engine
η = (Q_1 - Q_2) / Q_1

Maximum efficiency of heat engine
η_max = (T_1 - T_2) / T_1